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Mullein - Verbascum thapsus - Kóngaljós - Gulldás - Skrautplöntur - Sumarblóm

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Added by Admin in Bees Wintering 2019


Common Mullein - Verbascum thapsus - Great Mullein - Kóngaljós - Gulldás - Ólimpíukyndill - Königskerze - Candlewick - Adams-rod - Velvet mullein - Mullein dock - Old man's blanket - Cowboy toilet paper - Scrophulariaceae - Mullein blóm - A given flower is open only for a single day, opening before dawn and closing in the afternoon. A singular spire of Verbascum thapsus. Þetta er gamalt video frá 2013 þegar ég sá þessa plöntu í fyrsta sinn og var ekki viss um íslenska nafnið.

Plantan var kölluð Aaron´s rod á Rómartímanum vegna upprétts stofns sem var áður fyrr dýft í bráðna mör og notað sem kyndill af ferðalöngum á myrkum kvöldum.

Laufblöðin sem vaxa út úr stönglinum í fallegri rósettu eru uppreist og lensulaga með mjúkum gráhvítum fíngerðum hárum og eru nokkuð lík laufblöðum Fingurbjargarblóms Digitalis sem er í sömu ætt en heldur þykkari og loðnari. Þekktar eru 6. plöntur sem vaxa villtar í Englandi gjarnan í kalkríku og opnu landi, vegköntum eða skurðum. Börnum þar í landi var áður fyrr sagt að snákar héltu sig undir laufblöðum plöntunnar til að þau héldu sig frá þeim og voru þau því stundum kölluð snake´s flower. Plönturnar eru með hvíthærð laufblöð sem ilma af ávaxtailmi sem minnir á Rosa rubiginosa ef þau eru nudduð milli fingranna og bera gul ilmlaus blóm sem eru full af hunangi sem lokkar að Býflugur Apis og öðrum Æðvængjum af Hymenoptera ætt en eins laðast að fiðrildi Lepidoptera sem sjá um frjóvgunina en ef þeirra nýtur ekki við eru plönturnar sjálffrjóvgandi.

Great Mullein is a hairy biennial plant that can grow to 2 metres tall or more. Its small yellow flowers are densely grouped on a tall stem, which bolts from a large rosette of leaves. It grows in a wide variety of habitats, but prefers well-lit disturbed soils, where it can appear soon after the ground receives light, from long-lived seeds that persist in the soil seed bank. It is a common weedy plant that spreads by prolifically producing seeds, but rarely becomes aggressively invasive, since its seed require open ground to germinate. It is a very minor problem for most agricultural crops, since it is not a very competitive species, being intolerant of shade from other plants and unable to survive tilling. It also hosts many insects, some of which can be harmful to other plants. Although individuals are easy to remove by hand, populations are difficult to eliminate permanently. It is widely used for herbal remedies with emollient and astringent properties. It is known to possess anti-inflammatory, anti-tumour, antiviral, antifungal, antibacterial, expectorant, and analgesic properties. It is especially recommended for coughs and related problems, but also used in topical applications against a variety of skin problems. The plant was also used to make dyes and torches. Great Mullein is a biennial and generally requires winter dormancy before it can flower. This dormancy is linked to starch degradation activated by low temperatures in the root, and gibberellin application bypasses this requirement. Seeds germinates almost solely in bare soil, at temperatures between 10 °C and 40 °C. While they can germinate in total darkness if proper conditions are present (tests give a 35% germination rate under ideal conditions), in the wild, they in practice only do so when exposed to light, or very close to the soil surface, which explains the plant's habitat preferences. While it can also grow in areas where some vegetation already exists, growth of the rosettes on bare soil is four to seven times more rapid.

Seeds germinate in spring and summer. Those that germinate in autumn produce plants that overwinter if they are large enough, while rosettes less than 15 cm across die in winter. After flowering the entire plant usually dies at the end of its second year, but some individuals, especially in the northern parts of the range, require a longer growth period and flower in their third year. Under better growing conditions, some individuals flower in the first year. Triennial individuals have been found to produce fewer seeds than biennial and annual ones. While year of flowering and size are linked to the environment, most other characteristics appear to be genetic.

A given flower is open only for a single day, opening before dawn and closing in the afternoon.

Flowers are self-fecundating and protogynous (with female parts maturing first), and will self-pollinate if they have not been pollinated by insects during the day. While many insects visit the flowers, only some bees actually accomplish pollination. V. thapsus' flowering period lasts from June to August in most of its range, extending to September or October in warmer climates. Visitors include halictid bees and hoverflies.
: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Verbascum_thapsus

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