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Disambiguation “Honey” has been transferred to this item. See "Honey (Avoidance)" for other uses.
Honey means honey bees that have collected flower nectar, processed and stored in a nest. It is composed of about 80% sugar and about 20% water, and contains a small amount of nutrients such as vitamins and minerals . Taste and color vary depending on the nectar plant.
Originally honeybee food, but often collected by other organisms. Human beings have been used for various purposes such as edible and medicinal since ancient times, as there is a saying that “History of honey is the history of mankind”. Mankind initially collected honey from wild bee nests, but eventually learned to raise and collect bees (beekeeping). The production of honey by mankind is estimated to be about 1.2 million tons per year worldwide.
Collection of flower nectar by bees
See also bees
Honeybee collecting nectar from flowers
The nectar of the flower that is the source of honey is collected by female bees. The collected flower nectar is stored in a sucrose solution, or sucrose containing water (sucrose), in an organ called a nectar sac (nectar stomach ) in the front of the stomach. When the nectar is filled with flower nectar, the bees return to the nest .
In general, it is often thought that the nectar of flowers collected by bees is called honey , but the nectar of flower nectar processed and stored in the nest is honey . There are physical and chemical differences in the nature of . First, flower nectar has a lower sugar concentration than honey. In general, the sugar content of nectar in flowers is less than 40% at the stage of honey bee collection, but the honey's sugar content rises to around 80% as a result of the release of moisture after being brought back to the nest.  In addition, as one of the work to dissipate moisture, bees use nests in the nest to stretch the nectar into a film, and at this time the enzymes (invertase, invertase) contained in the bee saliva are nectar. The sucrose in nectar is decomposed into glucose (glucose) and fructose (fructose) by the action.
In addition, substances that are not originally contained in flower nectar are mixed from the mouth of bees. An example is choline. Choline is a substance contained in the royal jelly secreted from the pharyngeal gland of the honeybee, and the honeybee gives the royal jelly secreted from the pharyngeal gland to the queen bee larva using the mouth as well as the divergence of the moisture of the flower nectar. In order to carry out the work, it is thought that the choline in the royal jelly is mixed into the honey.
By the way, China's Ming Dynasty pharmacy book “Honso Tuname” says that honey is generated from stool by the spiritual action of stinking odor, and this theory is also similar to the Ming Dynasty industrial technical book “Tenkou Kaimono” It was handed down to the Japanese book of the Edo period, “Wahan Sansai Zhoukai”. In Japan, the Edo period herbologist Masashi Kaihara argued that honey is made from flower nectar. The author of the first beekeeping book in Japan, “Keeping the House of Bees,” Kouyuki Kuze, responded similarly.
Human honey collection
See "Beekeeping" for details.
A copy of the rock wall sculpture of Alania Cave depicting the honey collection
Beekeeper that captures bees
According to a study by Eva Crane, honey extraction by mankind had already begun 10,000 years ago. Mankind originally collected honey from wild bee nests.  In 1919, the Neolithic rock wall sculpture discovered in the Alania Cave in Spain is the oldest document showing the relationship between mankind and honey. The figure depicts a person who approaches a natural cave and tries to collect honey. In this mural, the cave and the bees are drawn very large, which can be interpreted as representing the great interest of the ancient honey and the fear of the bees.
Eventually, humanity learned how to beekeep, that is, to raise honey by obtaining bees. In Egypt, beekeeping was started about 5,000 years ago using a clay tube nest box, and nectar was collected while moving the nest box (translocation beekeeping). In Greek mythology, the beekeeping god Alice Taios appears.
Beekeeping is done using the bee's habit of creating a nest in a closed space, using logs, earthen pipes, straw rope sketches, and wooden fences that are hollowed out inside. In the past, a method of cutting the nest, crushing it and squeezing the nectar was used, but this caused great damage to the bees. In modern beekeeping, a nest is built in a wooden frame, and when nectar is accumulated, a centrifuge is used. The centrifuge honey extraction method was invented in 1865 by Austrian Fruska. By using a centrifuge, the amount of honey collected per bee group increased approximately 5 to 10 times.